M.A.: Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1946. Ph.D.: School of Oriental and African Studies, London University, 1949. Professor of Political Science, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1958-1993. Research: radical ideologies, minorities, and politico-linguistics in the Middle East and Central Asia. Authored 23 books, edited 12 others, and published more than 600 articles and book reviews. Laureate of the Israel Prize for Oriental Studies (2005) and many others.
Professor emeritus, department of Political Science